Overview of Canine Intestinal Parasites
Canine intestinal parasites, commonly referred to as “worms” in dogs, is one of the most common conditions seen in young puppies and dogs. Some dog owners will actually see worms in their dogs feces and others may not see any symptoms. Below is an overview of what are intestinal parasites, how dogs get worms, as well as the diagnosis, treatment and home care of worms in dogs. Following the overview is an in-depth article on Intestinal Parasites in dogs giving you more detail and information on the testing, treatment options and prevention of canine worms.
A parasite is a plant or animal that lives upon or within another living organism. There are a variety of parasites that infect various organs or body systems. Parasites can be either internal or external parasites - living primarily on the skin (fleas), in the respiratory tract (lungworms), or in the blood vessels and heart (heartworms).
Some gastrointestinal parasites are microscopic, and the only way to diagnose them is by microscopic examination of your dog's feces for the eggs shed by the adult worms. Others are large enough to be observed in your dog's bowel movements or after he vomits. Moreover, some tapeworms produce proglottids, which are the segments making up their body. These segments can be seen around the hair on the anus or in the stool, appearing as bits of moving “white rice.”
Among the important gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are roundworms (Toxocara species), hookworms (Ancylostoma caninum, Ancylostoma braziliense and Uncinaria stenocephala), whipworms (Trichuris vulpis, T. campanula, T. serrata), stomach worms (Physaloptera spp.), tapeworms (Diplylidium caninum, Taenia pisiformis), and microscopic parasites Coccidia, Giardia and Strongyloides species.
How Dogs Get Parasites
It should be emphasized that some parasites - especially roundworms and hookworms - can also affect people, especially children. For that reason, it is essential to prevent intestinal parasites in our pets and to treat any resultant infection.
Parasitic diseases range from trivial to fatal disease. Parasites can cause severe disease in immature puppies, sick or debilitated pets, or in pets with a suppressed immune system. Younger pets often get acute disease (vomiting, diarrhea, dehydration, and anemia) whereas older pets get chronic disease such as intermittent diarrhea.
What to Watch For
Diagnosis of Intestinal Parasites in Dogs
Because parasitism is easily confused with other debilitating conditions, diagnosis depends on the following:
Treatment of Intestinal Parasites in Dogs
Treatments for intestinal parasites may include one or more of the following:
Home Care and Prevention of Canine Parasites
At home administer any prescribed medications and follow-up with your veterinarian for examinations and repeated fecal (stool) tests as needed.
Some microscopic eggs can live in the environment (such as the yard) for weeks to months and cause re-infection. Clean up yard weekly and minimize roaming of pets in places like parks where exposure and infection are possible.
Many health care specialists recommend a fecal sample from all adult animals at least yearly, a sample at each puppy vaccination visit, and a follow up sample at the appropriate interval after the last deworming medication has been given.
With primarily outdoor dogs, it may be advisable to evaluate stool samples every three to six months if risk of infection is high. One may also consider heartworm preventatives that also prevent intestinal parasites.
In-depth Information on Intestinal Parasites in Dogs
Intestinal parasites are a common cause of vomiting and diarrhea in dogs; however, other medical problems can lead to similar symptoms.
Diagnosis In-depth of Canine Intestinal Parasites
Diagnostic tests are needed to recognize intestinal parasites. When a pet is ill with gastrointestinal symptoms, other tests may be needed to exclude other diseases, even if worms are obvious. These tests can include:
Additional diagnostic tests may be recommend on an individual pet basis to exclude or diagnose other conditions or to better understand this disease's impact on your pet:
Treatment In-depth of Canine Intestinal Parasites
The best course for managing intestinal parasites is prevention. Treatment of intestinal parasites must be individualized based on the severity of the condition and other factors that must be analyzed by your veterinarian. Treatment may include:
Treatment for parasites is often based the fecal analysis. Common treatments may include:
Home Care for Intestinal Parasites in Dogs
Optimal treatment for your pet requires a combination of home and professional veterinary care and follow-up is important. Administer prescribed veterinary medications as directed and be certain to contact your veterinarian if you are experiencing problems treating your pet. Your veterinarian should do a PCV or complete blood count (CBC) for anemic pets.
Your veterinarian should do repeat fecal examinations. Administer any prescribed medications; give yourself a reminder for treatments needed in the future.
Follow preventative veterinary recommendations.